Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev (1888-1972) was a brilliant Russian aviation engineer and one of the most decorated aviation technologists in the Soviet Union.  He started his aviation career in 1909 and by the mid-1920s was designing aircraft at various Soviet design bureaus.  In the late 1930s, Tupolev was arrested for anti-revolutionary activities and sent to a unique labor prison camp for aircraft designers, which evolved after Tupolev’s progressive rehabilitation in the 1940s and 1950s.  The Tupolev bureau, which exists to this day near Moscow, has always concentrated on bombers and transport aircraft.